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Typically presents with ocular findings before systemic disease is diagnosed. Most cases of hyperthyroidism are due to Grave's disease.

  • VISION... diplopia, amblyopia, decreased convergence
  • FIELDS... pericentral scotomata, bundle defects
  • EOM... weakness, painful movements, convergence weakness, hypertropia, paralysis of one or more muscles
  • ORBIT... edema, infiltration, prolapse
  • GLOBE... exophthalmos
  • LID... edema lower lid, upper lid retraction (Dalrymple's sign), lagophthalmos, vertigo, infrequent blinking, uneven jerky motion of the upper lid on inferior movement, abnormal pigmentation of the upper lid, tremor of gently closed lids, puffy lids, incomplete or infrequent blinking, upper lid lag on downward gaze (Von Graefe's sign)
  • PUPILS... uneven dilation in dim light
  • LACRIMIAL... gland enlargement, hyperlacrimation
  • CONJUN... chemosis, congestion
  • CORNEA... exposure keratitis, ulceration
  • SCLERA... reduced rigidity
  • IRIS... unequal dilatation, jerky reaction to consensual light
  • OPTIC... edema, neurotoxicity
  • TENSION... secondary glaucoma
Grave's Disease Details

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